Nicaea, Empire of

Nicaea, Empire of
   The center of Byzantium-in-exile from 12081261. Theodore I Laskaris (q.v.), its first emperor, was crowned in 1208. The victory of Kalojan over Baldwin of Flanders (qq.v.) in 1205 weakened subsequent Latin military initiatives in Asia Minor by Henry of Hainault (qq.v.). Theodore I's victory over the Seljuks (q.v.) in 1211 further insured the immediate survival of the Empire of Nicaea. John III Vatatzes (q.v.), who reigned from 1222-1254, expanded the empire into Thrace (q.v.), conquering Thessalonike (q.v.) in 1246. Theodore II Laskaris ([q.v.], reigned 1254-1258) turned back a Bulgarian invasion in 1254-1255. The ineffectual John IV Laskaris, a child of seven when he came to the throne, gradually fell sway to his general Michael (VIII) Palaiologos, who was crowned co-emperor in 1259. The Latin Empire (q.v.) ended in 1261 when the forces of Michael VIII captured the city, restoring, in effect, Byzantium (q.v.) to its proper capital.

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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  • Nicaea —    Important city in Bithynia (q.v.) that hosted two ecumenical councils (q.v.), the first in 325 and the seventh in 787. Its stout walls resisted Arab attacks in the eighth century only to fall to the Seljuks (q.v.) in 1081. It was reconquered… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Empire of Trebizond —    One of three Byzantine states created in exile after the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade (qq.v.). From 1204 1461 the dynasty of the Grand Komnenoi, founded by Alexios I Komnenos and David Komnenos (qq.v.), whose grandfather was… …   Historical dictionary of Byzantium

  • Nicaea — or Nice geographical name ancient city of Byzantine Empire; site at modern village of Iznik in NW Turkey in Asia at E end of Iznik Lake • Nicaean adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Nicaea — /nuy see euh/, n. an ancient city in NW Asia Minor: Nicene Creed formulated here A.D. 325. * * * Independent principality (1204–61) of the fragmented Byzantine Empire. Founded in 1204 by Theodore I Lascaris, it was the political and cultural… …   Universalium

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